The Ultimate Art Glossary for Vietnamese Artists

Art Glossary for Vietnamese Artists

From A to Z: The Ultimate Glossary for Vietnamese Artists to Elevate Their Craft

Art terminology encompasses a wide range of terms and concepts that are essential for understanding and appreciating the world of art. From the basic elements of art to more complex theories and movements, having a solid grasp of art terminology is crucial for anyone interested in the field. Some fundamental terms include line, shape, form, color, texture, and space.

These elements are the building blocks of visual art and are used by artists to create their work. Understanding these terms allows viewers to analyze and interpret art more effectively.

In addition to the basic elements of art, there are also various principles that guide the creation and appreciation of art. These principles include balance, contrast, emphasis, movement, pattern, rhythm, and unity. These principles help artists create visually appealing and meaningful compositions, and they also provide viewers with a framework for understanding and critiquing art.

Furthermore, art terminology also includes concepts related to art criticism and analysis, such as perspective, composition, and symbolism. These terms are essential for discussing and interpreting the meaning and significance of artworks.

Techniques and Mediums

Art Glossary for Vietnamese Artists

Artists use a wide variety of techniques and mediums to create their work. Techniques refer to the methods and processes used to create art, while mediums refer to the materials used to make art. Some common techniques include drawing, painting, printmaking, sculpture, and photography.

Each of these techniques requires different skills and tools, and artists often specialize in one or more of these areas. For example, painters may use techniques such as blending, glazing, or impasto to create different effects in their work.

Techniques (Kỹ thuật):

ChiaroscuroTối sángThe treatment of light and shade in drawing and painting.
CollageTranh cắt dánA technique of composing a work of art by pasting on a single surface various materials.
EncausticSơn bằng sáp nóngPainting with pigments mixed with hot wax.
EtchingKhắc axitA kind of engraving in which the design is incised in a layer of wax.
FrescoTranh tườngPainting on freshly spread moist lime plaster with water-based pigments.
GlazeMenIn painting, a thin transparent or semi-transparent layer on a painting.
GrisailleTranh xámA monochrome painting done entirely in shades of grey.
ImpastoBột màu dàyPainting that applies the pigment thickly so that brush or palette knife marks are visible.
IntaglioKhắc lõmThe family of printing and printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface.
LithographyIn thạch bảnA printmaking technique based on the repulsion of oil and water.
MosaicTranh khảmThe art of creating images with an assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
PerspectivePhối cảnhThe art of drawing solid objects on a two-dimensional surface so as to give the right impression of their height, width, depth, and position in relation to each other.
PointillismĐiểm họaA technique of painting using tiny dots of various pure colors.
Relief (sculpture)Chạm nổiSculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.
SfumatoKỹ thuật làm mờ nét vẽA smokelike haziness that subtly softens outlines in painting.
StipplingChấmThe creation of a pattern simulating varying degrees of solidity or shading by using small dots.
Trompe-l’oeilĐánh lừa thị giácVisual illusion in art, especially as used to trick the eye into perceiving a painted detail as a three-dimensional object.

In addition to techniques, artists also work with a wide range of mediums. These can include traditional materials such as oil paint, watercolor, charcoal, and clay, as well as more modern materials such as digital media and found objects.

Each medium has its own unique properties and challenges, and artists often choose their mediums based on their desired effects and personal preferences. Understanding the various techniques and mediums used in art is essential for appreciating the diversity and complexity of artistic expression.

Mediums (Chất liệu):

AcrylicSơn acrylicFast-drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion.
CharcoalThan chìA porous black solid, consisting of an amorphous form of carbon.
Egg temperaMàu keo trứngA permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigments mixed with a water-soluble binder medium.
GouacheMàu nước đụcA method of painting using opaque pigments ground in water.
InkMựcA colored fluid used for writing, drawing, printing, or painting.
Oil paintSơn dầuA type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil.
PastelPhấn tiênAn art medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.
WatercolorMàu nướcA painting method using pigments suspended in a water-based solution.

Art Movements and Styles

Art Glossary for Vietnamese Artists

Art movements and styles are important concepts in the world of art, as they provide a framework for understanding the historical and cultural context of artworks. Art movements are periods of time in which artists shared similar ideas and approaches to art-making.

These movements often reflect broader social, political, and philosophical changes, and they can have a significant impact on the development of art. Some well-known art movements include Impressionism, Cubism, Surrealism, and Abstract Expressionism.

Art Movements & Styles (Trường phái và Phong cách Nghệ thuật):

Abstract ExpressionismTrừu tượng biểu hiệnPost-World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s.
Art DecoArt DecoPopular design style of the 1920s and 1930s characterized by its geometric shapes and streamlined forms.
Art NouveauArt NouveauAn international style of art, architecture, and applied art, especially the decorative arts, popular in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
BaroqueBaroqueEuropean art movement of the 17th and early 18th centuries characterized by extravagance and emotional intensity.
BauhausBauhausA German interdisciplinary school of fine and applied arts that brought together many leading modern architects, designers, and theatrical innovators.
ClassicismChủ nghĩa cổ điểnThe following of ancient Greek or Roman principles and style in art and literature, generally associated with harmony, restraint, and adherence to recognized standards of form and craftsmanship.
CubismLập thểEarly 20th-century style and movement in art, especially painting, in which perspective with a single viewpoint was abandoned and use was made of simple geometric shapes.
DadaismDadaAn early 20th century international movement in art, literature, music, and film, repudiating and mocking artistic and social conventions.
ExpressionismChủ nghĩa biểu hiệnA style of painting, music, or drama in which the artist or writer seeks to express emotional experience rather than impressions of the external world.
FauvismDã thúA style of painting with vivid expressionistic and non-naturalistic use of color.
GothicGothicThe style of architecture prevalent in western Europe in the 12th–16th centuries, characterized by pointed arches, rib vaults, Ấn tượng
MinimalismTối giảnAn art movement in sculpture and painting that arose in the 1950s and used simple, typically massive, forms.
Pop ArtNghệ thuật đại chúngAn art movement that emerged in the United Kingdom and the United States during the mid-1950s, drawing inspiration from sources in popular and commercial culture.
Post-ImpressionismHậu ấn tượngThe work or style of a varied group of late 19th-century and early 20th-century artists including Van Gogh, Gauguin, and Cézanne.
RealismHiện thựcThe attitude or practice of accepting a situation as it is and being prepared to deal with it accordingly.
RenaissancePhục hưngThe revival of art and literature under the influence of classical models in the 14th–16th centuries.
RomanticismLãng mạnA movement in the arts and literature that originated in the late 18th century, emphasizing inspiration, subjectivity, and the primacy of the individual.
SurrealismSiêu thựcA 20th-century avant-garde movement in art and literature that sought to release the creative potential of the unconscious mind.

Within each art movement, there are also various styles that artists may adopt. Styles refer to the specific visual characteristics and techniques that define a particular artist or group of artists. For example, within the Impressionist movement, there are different styles associated with artists such as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir.

Understanding art movements and styles is essential for placing artworks within their historical and cultural context, as well as for recognizing the diverse range of artistic expression throughout history.

Color Theory and Composition

Color theory is a fundamental concept in art that explores the principles of color mixing and interaction. Understanding color theory allows artists to create harmonious and visually appealing compositions. The primary colors—red, blue, and yellow—form the basis for all other colors through mixing and blending.

Secondary colors are created by mixing two primary colors together, while tertiary colors are created by mixing a primary color with a secondary color. In addition to these basic principles, color theory also encompasses concepts such as hue, value, saturation, and temperature.

Color Theory (Lý thuyết Màu sắc):

HueSắc màuThe name of a color (e.g., red, green, blue).
ValueGiá trịThe lightness or darkness of a color.
SaturationĐộ bão hòaThe intensity or purity of a color.
Primary ColorsMàu cơ bảnRed, yellow, and blue; the colors from which all other colors can be mixed.
Secondary ColorsMàu thứ cấpGreen, orange, and purple; created by mixing two primary colors.
Tertiary ColorsMàu cấp baCreated by mixing a primary and secondary color (e.g., yellow-orange, red-orange).
Complementary ColorsMàu bổ sungColors opposite each other on the color wheel (e.g., red and green).
Analogous ColorsMàu tương tựColors next to each other on the color wheel (e.g., blue, blue-green, green).
Warm ColorsMàu nóngColors associated with warmth (e.g., red, orange, yellow).
Cool ColorsMàu lạnhColors associated with coolness (e.g., blue, green, purple).
Color HarmonySự hài hòa màu sắcThe pleasing arrangement of colors in a composition.
MonochromaticĐơn sắcA color scheme using only one hue and its values and shades.

Composition is another important aspect of art that refers to the arrangement of visual elements within an artwork. This includes considerations such as balance, contrast, rhythm, and focal points. Artists use composition to guide the viewer’s eye through the artwork and create a sense of unity and coherence.

Understanding color theory and composition is essential for appreciating the visual impact of artworks and for analyzing how artists use these elements to convey meaning and emotion.

Art History and Influential Artists

Art history is the study of the development of visual art throughout time. It encompasses a wide range of periods, styles, movements, and artists from around the world. Understanding art history provides insight into the cultural, social, and political contexts in which artworks were created, as well as the evolution of artistic techniques and ideas. Some key periods in art history include the Renaissance, Baroque, Romanticism, Modernism, and Postmodernism.

In addition to understanding art history as a whole, it is also important to be familiar with influential artists who have made significant contributions to the field. These artists have shaped the course of art history through their innovative ideas, techniques, and styles. Some well-known influential artists include Leonardo da Vinci, Vincent van Gogh, Pablo Picasso, Frida Kahlo, and Andy Warhol. Studying art history and influential artists provides a deeper appreciation for the rich diversity of artistic expression throughout time.

Composition (Bố cục):

Rule of ThirdsQuy tắc một phần baA guideline suggesting that an image should be divided into nine equal parts by two equally-spaced horizontal lines and two equally-spaced vertical lines, and that important compositional elements should be placed along these lines or their intersections.
Golden RatioTỷ lệ vàngA mathematical ratio commonly found in nature, often used to create pleasing and balanced compositions.
Focal PointĐiểm nhấnThe center of interest in a composition, where the viewer’s eye is drawn to first.
BalanceCân bằngThe distribution of visual weight in a composition.
MovementChuyển độngThe path the viewer’s eye takes through a composition, often leading to the focal point.
RhythmNhịp điệuA visual tempo or beat created by the repetition of elements in a composition.
UnityThống nhấtThe sense of harmony and wholeness in a composition.
VarietySự đa dạngThe use of different elements in a composition to create visual interest.
ContrastTương phảnThe juxtaposition of different elements (e.g., light and dark, rough and smooth) to create visual interest.

Exhibition and Gallery Terms

Exhibitions are events where artworks are displayed for public viewing. They can take place in galleries, museums, art fairs, or other cultural institutions. Understanding exhibition terms is important for navigating these events and understanding how artworks are presented to the public.

Some common exhibition terms include curator, installation, opening reception, artist talk, catalogue, and artist statement. These terms provide insight into the behind-the-scenes work that goes into organizing exhibitions and presenting artworks to audiences.

English TermVietnamese TermDefinition
ExhibitionTriển lãmA public display of works of art or other items of interest.
GalleryPhòng trưng bàyA room or building for the display or sale of works of art.
CuratorNgười phụ tráchA person in charge of a museum, gallery, or other collection.
ArtistNghệ sĩA person who creates works of art.
ArtworkTác phẩm nghệ thuậtA piece of art, such as a painting or sculpture.
CollectionBộ sưu tậpA group of objects or works of art gathered together.
InstallationTác phẩm sắp đặtA work of art made for a specific location and often involving the environment.
VernissageBuổi khai mạcThe opening of an art exhibition.
Private ViewBuổi xem riêngAn invitation-only viewing of an exhibition before it opens to the public.
CatalogueDanh mục triển lãmA book or pamphlet listing and describing the items in an exhibition.
Opening HoursGiờ mở cửaThe times when a gallery or museum is open to the public.
Admission FeePhí vào cửaThe cost of entering an exhibition or museum.
Guided TourChuyến tham quan có hướng dẫnA tour of an exhibition led by a knowledgeable guide.
Permanent CollectionBộ sưu tập thường trựcA collection of works of art that are on display permanently.
Temporary ExhibitionTriển lãm tạm thờiAn exhibition that is on display for a limited time.

Galleries are spaces dedicated to showcasing artworks for sale or public viewing. They play a crucial role in supporting artists and connecting them with collectors and audiences. Understanding gallery terms is important for anyone interested in buying or selling art or working in the art world.

Some common gallery terms include representation, commission, consignment, inventory, artist contract, and artist residency. These terms provide insight into the business side of the art world and how artists work with galleries to promote their work.

Business and Marketing in the Art World

The art world is not only about creating and appreciating art; it also involves business and marketing aspects that are essential for supporting artists and sustaining cultural institutions. Business terms in the art world include pricing strategies, sales channels, contracts, copyright laws, insurance, taxes, and artist royalties.

Understanding these terms is important for artists who want to make a living from their work or for anyone interested in working in arts administration or management.

English TermVietnamese TermDefinition
Art MarketThị trường nghệ thuậtThe economic system in which works of art are bought and sold.
Art DealerNgười buôn bán tác phẩm nghệ thuậtA person or company that buys and sells works of art.
Auction HouseNhà đấu giáA company that conducts auctions of works of art.
AppraisalThẩm địnhAn expert assessment of the value of a work of art.
ProvenanceNguồn gốcThe history of ownership of a work of art.
ConsignmentKý gửiThe act of placing a work of art with an art dealer or auction house for sale.
CommissionTiền hoa hồngA fee paid to an art dealer or auction house for selling a work of art.
Art FairHội chợ nghệ thuậtA large exhibition of works of art from multiple galleries and dealers.
Art ConsultantTư vấn nghệ thuậtA professional who advises clients on buying, selling, or collecting art.
Art InvestmentĐầu tư nghệ thuậtThe purchase of works of art as a financial investment.
Art FundQuỹ đầu tư nghệ thuậtA type of investment fund that invests in works of art.
Art MarketingTiếp thị nghệ thuậtThe promotion and advertising of works of art and artists.
Art PRQuan hệ công chúng nghệ thuậtThe management of public relations for artists and art institutions.
Art BrandingXây dựng thương hiệu nghệ thuậtThe creation and management of a brand identity for an artist or art institution.

Marketing is another crucial aspect of the art world that involves promoting artworks and cultural events to audiences. Marketing terms in the art world include branding, social media strategy, public relations, audience development, sponsorship, advertising, and audience engagement. Understanding these terms is important for galleries, museums, cultural organizations, and individual artists who want to reach wider audiences and connect with potential buyers or supporters.


In conclusion, art terminology encompasses a wide range of concepts that are essential for understanding and appreciating the world of art. From basic elements such as line and color to more complex ideas such as art movements and marketing strategies, having a solid grasp of art terminology is crucial for anyone interested in the field.

Whether you are an artist looking to expand your skills or a collector wanting to deepen your understanding of artworks, studying art terminology provides valuable insights into the rich diversity of artistic expression throughout history.

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